Processing and packaging of the hottest export fre

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Processing and packaging of fresh mushrooms for export

1. Processing of fresh mushrooms

(1) fresh mushrooms choose

the cap diameter is more than 4 cm, the meat is plump, the surface is not damaged, and the shape is regular; Without washing, the water content is more than 90%

(2) dehydration treatment

the water content requirements of fresh shiitake mushrooms are different by sea and air. The moisture content of air transportation should be controlled below 90%, while that of sea transportation should be 65% - 70%, and the mushroom noodles should not wrinkle due to water loss

there are three methods of dehydration:

① cold air dehydration method is to use a cold fan to blow against the spread of fresh mushrooms to make them lose some water. This method is suitable for small package air transportation and should be used in winter

② drying dehydration method: first spread the fresh mushrooms in the sun, and then put them into the dryer when the hand is a little dry, and take them out immediately when the mushroom surface turns white (don't bake too dry). This method can reduce the water content to a lower level, which is suitable for large package shipping or air transportation

③ low temperature drying method, so some standards of the experimental machine are different from other machines, that is, add a dehumidifier in the high-temperature warehouse to reduce the humidity in the warehouse, and then turn on the fan of the refrigerator to dry it at low temperature. Generally, after 2-3 days and nights, the mushroom surface turns white and the water content reaches the standard. The fresh mushrooms treated by this method can be transported by sea or air

2. Packaging of processed fresh mushrooms

(1) grading in strict accordance with the requirements. Take the grading standard of Japanese zhudarong company for fresh mushrooms as an example: grade M: each mushroom has a diameter of 4-5 cm, and each box contains 6 mushrooms; Level L: the pollution caused by the mushroom plastic granulator process is often an important source of environmental pollution in China, with a diameter of 5-6 cm, and 4 pieces per box; 2L grade: Mushroom diameter 6-7 cm, 2 per box. The length of the above mushroom stems is about 2 cm

(2) the quality and loading of the packaging box are plastic boxes and cardboard boxes. Package in different sizes. The small package is made of 2 The intelligent control system is packed in plastic boxes and then put into cartons. There are 8000 grams and 10 kilograms in China. The large package is packed in large fresh-keeping bags, and then put into foam boxes, wrapped in cartons. There are 5kg and 10kg. Attention should be paid to when making large packaging: first take the processed mushrooms to the cold storage to cool down to 0 ℃, then put them into large fresh-keeping bags, remove the air (vacuum cleaner can be used), tie the mouth of the bags tightly, and then put them into foam boxes. There are certain proportion requirements for mushrooms of different levels in large packaging. Generally speaking, the m level is less than 25%, the L level is 50%, and the 2l level is about 25%

3. Storage for transportation

the packaged mushrooms to be transported should be placed in the cold storage, and the temperature of the warehouse without cold storage should be controlled at about 0 ℃. The storage time of small packages should not exceed 3 days, otherwise the surface color of the cap will become darker, the incision of the mushroom handle will be blackened, and the quality will be degraded, which is difficult to sell

source: Information Institute of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences

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